Making decisions regarding parenting arrangements for your children can involve complex considerations in what is already an emotionally difficult time. The preference is always to attempt to reach an agreement out of court where possible and to avoid litigation, saving you and your family money, time and extra stress in already challenging circumstances.
If you can reach an agreement with your former partner about parenting arrangements following separation, this can be put into writing in a parenting plan, or consent orders. Although a parenting plan is not in itself a legally enforceable document, it can represent a great starting point and an understanding between you and your former partner. It may well be the only agreement you ever need, if both parents commit to following it.
A further option is to formalise your agreement as legally enforceable court orders, more commonly referred to as parenting orders. Provided there is an agreement between the parents, enforceable parenting orders can be made without either of you setting foot in a court room.
If you are unable to reach agreement on parenting arrangements, you can apply to the family law court for parenting orders. Stacks has an experienced family law team that will help and represent you through dispute resolution and through the court process. Our aim is to assist you to resolve your parenting dispute as early as possible, be it prior to the commencement of court proceedings, or as soon as possible during the court process.
The Family Law Act places great emphasis on what is best for the child, and the court’s main consideration in determining parenting arrangements is ensuring that they are in the best interests of the children. This includes making sure they are safe and protected from harm, and that they can continue to have meaningful relationships with both parents and with extended family.
Making parenting arrangements can be a complex and difficult process for separated parents. Stacks family lawyers are experienced in all matters regarding children and parenting arrangements, and can assist you with advice throughout the process and with representation should you require it.
Commonly asked questions about child custody and parenting arrangements
What is a parenting plan?
A parenting plan is an informal agreement made between you and your former partner that establishes parenting arrangements for children. It is not legally enforceable, however you can apply to make it binding by applying to the court for consent orders. Consent orders are an agreement between you and the other party which is approved by the court and then made into a court order.
By doing so, you are adding protection in case of circumstances changing or future disputes. You do not need to consult with a lawyer to make or to change a parenting plan, however legal advice can be sought to ensure all important considerations in the plan have been incorporated, and that the children’s best interests are prioritised.
You can read more about parenting plans here.
What goes into a parenting plan?
Parenting plans can incorporate any details that you and your former partner wish to include. Ultimately, parenting plans should ensure that children have access to both parents in a substantial and significant way. Some examples of details that can be included are:
Who the child lives with
Who the child spends time with and how they communicate with the other parent
What happens on important family events such as Christmas Day, Easter, school holidays, birthdays, Father’s Day and Mother’s Day
Access to extended family and other significant people in the child’s life
Division of parental responsibility and decision-making
Process for dispute resolution about the child custody arrangement
What is the difference between a parenting plan and parenting orders?
Parenting plans are informal plans made by you and your former partner. While they are not legally binding, they will usually be taken into consideration by the court if it has been signed by both parties and was formed without threat or intimidation.
If parents cannot agree on arrangements for the children’s care, and family dispute resolution has failed or is deemed not appropriate, then you can apply for a parenting order from a family law court. Parenting orders are made by the court and are therefore binding and legally enforceable. This means you have legal recourse should your former partner not abide by the agreement that was made.
What is the process if I can't reach an agreement with my former partner about parenting arrangements
If parents cannot agree on child custody, you can file an application for parenting orders with either the Family Court or the Federal Circuit Court. However, in the majority of cases, you are required to attempt to resolve the issues with your former partner through family dispute resolution before filing the application with the court. Should family dispute resolution fail to provide an outcome, your application for parenting orders must include the certificate which will be issued by the accredited family dispute resolution practitioner who conducted your family dispute resolution counselling.
Once the application has been filed with the court, your matter will be allocated its first court date, commonly referred to as a directions hearing. At this directions hearing, the judge will assess your matter in consultation with both parties, and make appropriate directions to progress your matter towards eventual settlement or a final hearing.
If the parties have still been unable to reach any agreement on parenting arrangements at the directions hearing, the court may allocate an interim hearing as soon as the court can accommodate. At the interim hearing, sworn statements or affidavits from each party will be read, as well as submissions being heard from each party. An interim decision for parenting arrangements will be made, and will usually then remain in place until the final hearing.
In some cases, it can take well over a year for the final child custody hearing to occur. At this hearing, all evidence is presented to the judge, and all witnesses who provided sworn statements or affidavits will attend and be cross-examined. The parties again make submissions to the judge.
The judge will then make a decision, after careful consideration of the evidence, and order the parenting arrangements he or she considers to be in the children’s best interests.
How long do parenting orders stand?
Parenting orders remain in place until the child turns 18, or until further orders are made by the court.